Reply 1 and 2 ,150 words each one by 06/12/2021 at 6:00 pm ,please add references and citations

Reply 1Re: Topic 4 DQ 2Change means making something different. It may be planned or unplanned. Unplanned changes bring about unpredictable outcomes, while planned change is a sequence of events implemented to achieve established goals. Various change theories have been developed to explore the phenomena in diverse organizational settings. The first change theory which is used in healthcare is Kurt Lewin’s change theory. It will typically be composed of three stages, namely the unfreezing level, freezing level, and the refreezing level. For this theory to work, it will be dependent on the presence of driving and resistance forces (Hussain et al., 2018). Notably, the resistance forces will be composed of stakeholders who do not want the implementation of the change. For success to be realized, the driving forces must be stronger when compared to the resistance forces. The second theory is referred to as the Spradley change theory. It can be termed to be a modified version of Lewin’s change theory (Seidel, 2018). Even so, it is unique in that it is composed of eight stages instead of three. As well, it has the provision of conducting constant evaluation to ensure that the process of change is successful.In the implementation of the intervention to have the proper maintenance of a central line, the Spradley’s change theory will be the most suitable. That is because it will ensure that the Evidence-Based Intervention is evaluated continuously. In that way, issues that emerge in the process of implementation can be easily solved. Also, constant evaluation will ensure that the required modifications are made. In the past, my preceptor has made use of the Spradley’s theory of change and registered positive outcomes. To be specific, this model was effective in dealing with different hurdles that emerged in the process of implementing the desired change. The ability to deal with hurdles means that the change was implemented in a timely fashion. That being the case, it makes sense to use the Spradley’s theory of change in the process of implementing Evidence-Based Practice (EBP).References.Hussain, S. T., Lei, S., Akram, T., Haider, M. J., Hussain, S. H., & Ali, M. (2018). Kurt Lewin’s change model: A critical review of the role of leadership and employee involvement in organizational change. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 3(3), 123-127. doi:10.1016/j.jik.2016.07.002Seidel, M. (2018, November 21). Change theories in nursing. Retrieved from 24 postsRe: Topic 4 DQ 2The Lewin Change ModelIt is considered to be one of the forefathers of change management, organizational development, and social psychology. His change model is very simple, yet it’s this simplicity that makes it so powerful.Unfreezing– First, a process must shift away from its current state. To accomplish this, it’s necessary to overcome inertia, bypass defense mechanisms, and dismantle current viewpoints.Transition– The second stage is where the change occurs. It can involve confusion and uncertainty. The end goal is not always clear.Freezing– The final stage of transition involves replacing the old ways of thinking and operating. During this stage, people begin to return to their comfort zone and feel more comfortable with this new status quo.Kotter’s 8-Step Model for ChangeHis theory of change management is specifically tailored for change management and organizational change. Therefore, this change model is useful for those who want more than just theory, they want a framework to follow.It has eight steps:Create a sense of urgencyBuild a guiding coalitionForm a strategic vision and initiativesEnlist a volunteer armyEnable action by removing barriersGenerate short-term winsSustain accelerationInstitute changeReferenceSmith, C. (2019). These are the 3 Best Theories of Change Management. Change.

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