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Serosal Membrane

The serosal cavity that was penetrated in the patient was the peritoneal cavity. Precisely, the injury of the patient was located around the seventh and eights ribs which could penetrate the heart and the lungs. The serosal membrane has many different functions. It protects the organs and body cavities it lines and enables movement of smooth muscles without damage to the organs. It also allows for frictionless movement of the lungs, heart and organs in the abdominal cavity. The serosal membrane also regulates transport of fluid and substances that flow across the membrane (“Serous Membrane”, 2017).

Autonomic Nervous System

The Autonomic Nervous System regulates ones blood pressure, respiration, digestion,urination/defecation, body temperature, metabolism and sexual arousal. The Autonomic Nervous System works on it’s own, without the persons conscious thought or effort. The ANS has two divisions: the sympathetic, which prepares the body for stressful or emergency situations andthe parasympathetic, which conserves and restores energy (Low, P. MD., 2017). The ANS of the patient sends signals to the secondary neurons making the peripheral nervous system send back this neuron signals to the epidermis and dermis in the form of pain. In case of the critical signals such as respiration, temperature, bold pressure, and pulses, it will change from the homeostatic level to a level that will be more unstable. For instance, in the case of body temperature, when a patient sustains a severe injury similar to this patient, there will be no breathing pattern which will result in a drop in the patients body temperature. Primarily, lack of breathing results in oxygen falling to reach the body tissues, causing a drop in body temperature. Breathing will also slow down since the penetration is in the thoracic muscle, which also contributes to respiration. However, the pulse rate will increase because the heart rate will rise as the the heart pumps blood faster to the affected region. Though, the patient’s blood pressure will decrease since there will be insufficient oxygen in the bloodstream due to the reduction of respiration.

Trajectory of Arrow

The first arrow penetrated into the patient at a sagittal plane through the left upper side of the thoracic cavity. This injury will possibly result in damage of the heart and lungs.

Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular system consist of the heart, blood vessels and all the blood that the blood vessels transport. It is powered by the heart and is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones and cellular wastes throughout the entire body. There are two distinct paths in the cardiovascular system, pulmonary and systemic circulations. These two paths work together to supply blood to all body parts and ensure body organs are oxygenated (Martini, F., Tallitsch, R., & Nath, J. , 2018). Hematrhrosis is bleeding in a joint that occurs after injuryor physical trauma. Hematocrit measures the volume of blood against the total blood volume on the body. This kind of injury result in a significant loss of blood which will cause a drop in hematocrit levels of this patient. Also, the hemoglobin level will decrease because the blood cells will not be receiving enough oxygen from the respiratory system (Eustice, 2018).

Neuromuscular Effects

Muscle paralysis could be the neuromuscular impact of the second arrow. In this region, the posterior clavicle triangle holds the muscles that are utilized in controlling the movement of the neck and head. Therefore, sustaining an injury in this part could result in lack of muscle contractions. The ACH and ACH receptors will not have the ability to come together to cause the contractions as the arrow would have injured the neurilemma and axoplasm along the muscle and fibers.

Tissue Types

Number 1 is muscle tissue which enables movement and contraction. The three types of muscle tissues are skeletal, smooth and cardiac. Skeletal muscles generates the heart, stabilizes the skeleton and protects organs. They are under direct conscious control and are able to repair themselves. Smooth muscles move food and urine across the body and regulates the size of blood vessels and respiratory passageways. They are not under conscious control and can also repair themselves. Cardiac muscles are found in the walls of the heart. They circulates blood, maintain bloop pressure and are unable to repair themselves (Martini, F., Tallitsch, R., & Nath, J. , 2018). Number 2 is osseous (bone) tissue, which is a specialized connectivetissue that forms bones. The two types of bone tissues are compact and spongy. Compact bones is strong and dense while spongy bones are very porous and vascularized. Lastly, number 3 is connective tissue, which can handle a lot of physical stress. Functions of CT include binding, support, protection, insulation and transportation of blood. There are two types of connect tissues: loose and dense. Loose CT provide support and cushion while storing lipids. There are three subcategories of loose CT which include areolar, adipose and reticular. Dense CTprovide strength and are is primarily found in joints, tendons and cartilage. There are two subcategories of dense CT which include dense regular and dense irregular (Mullis, R., 2017). After injury, damaged cells release inflammatory signals that widen blood vessels. The increased blood flow results in heat and redness and the excess liquid in the tissues cause swelling, also known as edema. The feeling of pain is caused by the swollen tissues squeezing the pain receptors. As a result, during the injury crisis period, the tissues will try maintaining themselves by producing more cells.

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