Detail the advantages and disadvantages of integrating various renewable energy sources into national electrical grid systems. Focus on environmental impact, costs involved, and load balancing. Consider Solar PV, Wind, Hydro, and Biomass Electricity (including waste incineration) and any others of your choice.

Brief: Financial incentives are encouraging growth in the development and installation of renewable technologies in many countries. You are to prepare and submit a report to improve your understanding of renewable energy technologies. Structure your work in report style (as discussed in your ILSC class) using font size 12 and 1.5 line spacing. The maximum word limit is 1100 including references.
Detail the advantages and disadvantages of integrating various renewable energy sources into national electrical grid systems. Focus on environmental impact, costs involved, and load balancing. Consider Solar PV, Wind, Hydro, and Biomass Electricity (including waste incineration) and any others of your choice. Use case studies of proposed or implemented renewable installation to support your findings with any factors relating to specific local and/or global locations.
Provide references to support any scientific technological claims reported. You should include quantitative information to support your discussion and conclusions. Use APA style citations and references.

Experiment 7

Molar Mass of a Volatile Liquid Using a Real Gas Equation of State

By

The molar mass of a volatile liquid (acetone) was determined by Vapor density using boiling water at a mean temperature of 96.80 C° and mean atmospheric pressure of 727.8 torr. The molar mass of acetone was determined to be 34±32 g/mol with 40% of error as compared with the known value of 58.08g/mol. One major source of error was the size of the hole that was made in the middle of the aluminum foil, which was not small enough.

PROCEDURE: PROCEDURE Hirko, R. Chemistry 112L General Chemistry I Laboratory, Tenth Edition; bluedoor: Minnetonka, MN, 2016; Experiment 7.

Table 1. Molar Mass of Acetone.

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3
Mass flask, foil, and rubber band/g 100.099 75.796 76.748
Barometric pressure/torr 727.5 728 727.7
Water boiling T/C° 97.5 96.5 96.3
Mass flask, foil, and rubber band + residual test fluid/g 100.281 75.994 76.950
Residual test fluid/g 0.179 0.099 0.202
Volume of fluid/g 148.5 148.5 146.5
Molar mass (g/mol) 38.143 21.11 43.638
Mean molar mass (g/mol)                      34
Uncertainty/(g/mol)                      32

RESULT: Table 1 illustrates three trials of density reactions that contain acetone. Mass flask, foil, and rubber band weight were recorded for each trial. The electronic device used in the experiment to determine the temperature is a temperature probe; also, the pressure probe helped to measure the pressure at the room temperature. Approximately 2 ml is added to a flask, and then the flask is measured with foil and rubber band. After that, the flask is placed in the beaker, which contains the boiling water, to evaporate. While waiting for the left over acetone, the temperature was measured. Furthermore, the flask and the residual acetone was weighed and measured. The difference between masses was the residual fluid. The volume of the flask was determined by filling the flask with water and then the water was poured in the graduate cylinder. The purpose for doing that is to measure the volume of the gas. The equation that used to find the molar mass is , m is the mass of residual acetone, R is the gas constant 62.36367 L.torr/K.mol, T is the boiling water temperature, P is the room Pressure, and V is the volume of the gas. Consequently, the molar mass of acetone is found in each trial with mean molar mass 34±32 g/mol with 40% possibility of error as compared with the known value of 58.08 g/mol.

 

 

 

 

 

 

DISCUSSION: Molar mass was determined to be 34g/mol, which was found to be less than the known value in all three trials. The percent error is 40% as compared with the known value of 58.08 g/mol; hence, the observed mass is not within the usual mass due to the huge uncertainty that is ±32 g/mol.

38.143g/mol, 21.11g/mol, and 43.638 are the molar masses of acetone obtained in the experiment. The huge difference is clearly shown in all the three trials; thus the observed values are not consistent. The cause of inconsistency in the second trial was not waiting long enough for the flask to cool to room temperature, which eventually affected the mass of the residual fluid. Furthermore, even though the amount of acetone used was constant, 2ml for all three trials, the concentration for each trials is different then the other due to the difficulties in measurement. On the other hand, the percentage of uncertainty is not within the expected range because the mean molar mass is not within the normal value of acetone, 58.08 g/mol.

Considering the temperature and pressure detected during the experiment, relation between the temperature and pressure noticed. For instance, as the pressure rises the boiling point increases. During the trials, the temperature remained a mean 96.80 C°, and the atmospheric pressure remained with mean 727.8 torr; both had relativity minor increases and decreases as indicated in the Table 1. Therefore, the boiling point was stable. In Brookings, a different result could be achieved if the pressure was higher, thus the relation between weather or atmosphere and boiling point is indicated. Moreover, if the experiment were conducted in La Rinconada, Peru at the elevation of 16,728ft, the boiling point will decrease and the molar mass is also going to decrease. The cause of that situation is the change in altitude, as the pressure gets lower in high places the temperature will decrease as well. As a result, the boiling point will be lower than the places close to the sea level, and the molar mass is going to be lower.

When the polarity of a solvent increases, the effect that would be caused by that is the known value gets higher, the main reason for that is the higher the polarity of a substance; cause a boiling point to be higher due to a intermolecular interactions between molecules.

Major source of error is not cleaning the measurement instruments carefully after each trail in order to attain the most effective results. Consequently, this could create an inconsistency with in the determined results for each trial. Another, source of error was the size of the hole that was made in the middle of the aluminum foil, which was not small enough.

The experiment can have possible improvements by cleaning the measurement instruments carefully after each trail in order to accomplish the most effective results during the experiment. Also, the performer of the experiment must wait for the flask to cool down, which will lead to obtain a better result in a measured for the mass of Residual test fluid.

Sci 120 Assignment 3

Report Format

The following format is suggested:-

Title

Author’s details

Introduction

Renewable Energies

(This section may be broken into sub sections one for each renewable energy considered.)

Meeting the changing demand

(This is a suggested title for a short section describing how the above technologies may be used to prevent ‘power black-outs’.)

Conclusion

References


 

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