choose 3 bones of the axial skeleton and 3 bones of the appendicular skeleton

Choose 3 bones of the axial skeleton and 3 bones of the appendicular skeleton.

For each of the bones you choose, write anatomical descriptions of the two (2) most important bone surface features for that bone and explain why they are the most important.

Write one paragraph per bone, so each paragraph has one bone and 2 bone surface features.

Each bone surface feature must have a description and explanation for why the feature is important.

Do not describe sutures or sinuses.

Use only the bones I give you and only the surface features I say. I provided some descriptions of the surface features. Please use these descriptions and add on to them. Do not copy these descriptions word for word.

Axial Skeleton:

Temporal Bone

Internal auditory meatus

The internal auditory meatus is the opening through which the facial (VII) and vestibulocochlear (VIII) cranial nerves pass.

Mastoid Portion

The mastoid portion (mastoid=breast-shaped) is located posterior and inferior to the external auditory meatus (meatus=passageway), or ear canal, which directs sound waves into the ear. In the adult, this portion of the bone contains several mastoid air cells that communicate with the hollow space of the middle ear (tympanic cavity).

Maxillae Bone

Palatine Process

The palatine process is a horizontal projection of the maxilla that forms the anterior three-quarters of the hard palate.

Infraorbital foramen

The infraorbital foramen (infra-=below; orbital=orbit), which can be seen in the anterior view of the skull in , is an opening in the maxilla inferior to the orbit. Through it passes the infraorbital blood vessels and nerve, a branch of the maxillary division of the trigeminal (V) nerve.


Mental Foramen

The mental foramen (ment-=chin) is approximately inferior to the second premolar tooth. It is near this foramen that dentists reach the mental nerve when injecting anesthetics.

Mandibular Foramen

The mandibular foramen is the beginning of the mandibular canal, which runs obliquely in the ramus and anteriorly to the body. The inferior alveolar nerves and blood vessels pass through the canal and are distributed to the mandibular teeth.

Appendicular Skeleton


Sternal End

The medial end of the clavicle, called the sternal end, is rounded and articulates with the manubrium of the sternum to form the sternoclavicular joint.

Acromial End

The broad, flat, lateral end, the acromial end (a‐KRŌ‐mē‐al) (Figure 8.2), articulates with the acromion of the scapula at the acromioclavicular joint.



At the proximal end of the ulna is the olecranon, which forms the prominence of the elbow.

Coronoid Process

The coronoid process (corone=crow) is an anterior projection distal to a large notch, the trochlear notch.


Lateral Malleolus

The distal end has a projection called the lateral malleolus that articulates with the talus of the ankle. This forms the prominence on the lateral surface of the ankle.


The head of the fibula, the proximal end, articulates with the inferior surface of the lateral condyle of the tibia below the level of the knee joint to form the proximal tibiofibular joint.

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